Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd International Conference on Chemical Engineering
Chicago, Illinois ,USA.

Day 2 :

Keynote Forum

Adango Miadonye

Cape Breton University, Canada

Keynote: Microwave applications in petroleum processing

Time : 10:00-10:40

OMICS International Chemical Engineering 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Adango Miadonye photo
Biography:

Adango Miadonye has his expertise in rheology and transport property of reservoir fl uids, heavy oil and bitumen, microwave energy for enhanced oil recovery, upgrading and refi ning processes. His collaboration with Innovation 121 Inc. helps to develop a new cleaner oil sands technology and an engineered micro-bubbles process that facilitates oil separation from the sand grains.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Microwave energy is gradually becoming the most diverse form of energy transfer. It has been used with great success in the petroleum industry for inspecting coiled tubing and line pipe, measuring multiphase fl ow and the mobilization of asphaltic crude oil. Th ough its implications in petroleum applications are yet to be fully understood, the electromagnetic aspects of energy transfer between microwaves and other forms of matter are well comprehended in processes where microwave energy is used to eff ect a chemical or physical change. Th e depletion of conventional crude oil reserves is accompanied by growing economic demand for various types of fuel, giving more prominence to heavy oil and bitumen which deposits exceed light oil deposits by two orders of magnitude. In Canada, eff orts have been intensifi ed to develop microwave irradiation technology for in situ enhanced oil recovery of the country’s large deposits of bitumen and heavy oil. Of the estimated 30 billion barrels of heavy oil in place, about 26 billion barrels are considered unrecoverable using the current technology. Th e specifi c objectives were to study microwave process conditions that would aff ect the upgrading of heavy oil/bitumen to synthetic crude and achieve up to 50% desulphurization as well as obtain preliminary data on process design and economics.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In a typical experiment, oil was mixed with one or more of additives and exposed to various dosages of microwave radiation at low pressure. Th e microwave reactor was constructed from a domestic microwave oven which was modifi ed to allow for the accommodation of a mixer, a device to monitor temperature and pressure in the reactor and interfaced with a desktop computer for data acquisition. Th e power level and irradiation intensity was at level high.
Findings: Results obtained with GC-MS showed evidence of fragmentation process in heavy oil/bitumen samples but, no signifi cant change in molecular structure for majority of the light crude oil samples aft er being subjected to microwave irradiation. Average
reduction in sulfur content of 16% and 39.4% were obtained for heavy oil and light oil respectively.
 
                                                           
 
Conclusion & Significance: The work done so far showed strong indications for the microwave technology to be employed not only for hydrocarbon extractions but also for in situ upgrading and field upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen desulphurization of crude oil and future upgrading of coal and oil shale. Overall, the microwave technology presents the best alternative, economically and environmentally, to the existing technologies for enhanced oil recovery operations and processing.
 
 

Break: Networking & Refreshment Break 10:40-11:00 @ Foyer
OMICS International Chemical Engineering 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Ramesh Agarwal photo
Biography:

Ramesh K Agarwal is the Professor William Palm of Engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, USA. His expertise is in computational fl uid dynamics and heat transfer and its applications to the problems in aerodynamics, energy and environment. He is the author and coauthor of over 500 publications and serves on the Editorial Board of 20+ journals. He has given many plenary, keynote and invited lectures at various national and international conferences worldwide. He is a Fellow of AAAS, ASME, AIAA, IEEE, SAE and SME.

Abstract:

Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a next generation combustion technology that has shown great promise in addressing the need for high-effi ciency low-cost carbon capture from fossil fueled power plants to address rising carbon emissions. A computational fl uid dynamics (CFD) simulation is developed using the Eulerian approach based on a laboratoryscale experiment with a dual fl uidized bed CLC reactor. Th e salient features of the fl uidization behavior in the air reactor and fuel reactor beds are accurately captured in the simulation. Th e results highlight the need for more accurate empirical reaction rate data for future CLC simulations. Th e spouted fl uidized bed setup provides several advantages when solid coal is used as fuel for CLC. Th e Lagrangian approach known as Discrete Element Method (DEM) coupled with the CFD solution of the fl ow fi eld provides an eff ective means of simulating the behavior of such a bed. Th e overall results using Fe-based oxygen carriers reacting with gaseous CH4 confi rm that chemical reactions have been successfully incorporated into the coupled CFD-DEM simulations. The results indicate a strong dependence of the fl uidization behavior on the density of bed material and provide important insight into selecting the right oxygen carrier to improve performance. Th is work provides a basis for future simulations of CD-CLC systems using solid coal as fuel. Given the high computing cost of CFD-DEM, it is necessary to develop a scaling methodology based on the principles of dynamic similarity that can be applied to a CFD-DEM simulation to expand the scope of this approach to larger CLC systems up to the industrial scale. A new scaling methodology based on the terminal velocity is proposed for spouted fl uidized beds. Simulations of a laboratory-scale spouted fl uidized bed are used to characterize the performance of the new scaling law in comparison with existing scaling laws in the literature. It is shown that the proposed law improves the accuracy of the simulation results compared to the other scaling methodologies while also providing the largest reduction in the number of particles.

  • Track 7: Chemical Polymer Technology
    Track 9: Thermodynamics
    Track 11: Environmental and Sustainable Chemical Engineering
Location: ZURICH
Speaker

Chair

Ying Liu

University of Illinois, USA

Session Introduction

Igor Zhitomirsky

McMaster University, Canada

Title: Colloidal methods for the fabrication of advanced electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors

Time : 11:40-12:10

Speaker
Biography:

Igor Zhitomirsky is a Distinguished Engineering Professor at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering of McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. He is a primary author of more than 230 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 8 patents. His major research interests are in electrochemical nanotechnology, colloidal nanotechnology and surface modifi cation techniques. He has developed advanced materials and manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of electrochemical supercapacitors for energy storage. His approach is focused on the advanced surface modifi cation techniques, development of advanced dispersing and capping agents for colloidal processing of nanoparticles, development of redox binders, liquid-liquid extraction techniques for agglomerate free processing of nanoparticles, electrostatic heterocoagulation and Schiff base reactions for design of advanced nanocomposites, polymermediated electrosynthesis and electrophoretic deposition techniques.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Th e success of the supercapacitor technology will depend largely on the ability to achieve strong electrochemical performance of advanced electrode materials at practically important high active mass loadings and high chargedischarge rates. Th e purpose of this study is the development of advanced composite metal oxide-carbon nanotube and metal oxide graphene electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors with high active mass loading, high areal and gravimetric capacitances, good cyclic stability and low impedance. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The approach is based on the development of new dispersing and capping agents for synthesis and colloidal processing of oxide nanoparticles, new dispersing agents for carbon nanotube and graphene and new techniques for composite design. Findings: Chelating organic molecules with strong polydentate bonding to metal oxide surface were used as capping and dispersing agents with superior control of nanoparticle size and dispersion. Small aromatic molecules and materials from bile acid family allowed excellent dispersion of carbon nanotubes and graphene.
                 
New chelating polymers and chelating polymer complexes with redox properties allowed superior co-dispersion of electrode components and were utilized as advanced redox-active binders for electrodes. Liquid-liquid extraction techniques, extraction strategies and extractors were developed for agglomerate free nanoparticle processing. Electrostatic heterocoagulation techniques were developed for the design of advanced electrodes. Conclusion & Signifi cance: Advanced supercapacitor electrodes were developed with areal capacitance of 8 F cm-2, capacitance retention at high charge-discharge rate above 50%, low impedance, good cyclic stability and high power-energy characteristics.

Daniela Almeida Streitwieser

Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Ecuador

Title: The shift of raw materials from oil, coal and natural gas to biomass and residues

Time : 12:10-12:40

Speaker
Biography:

Daniela Almeida Streitwieser has her expertise in the development of new technologies for the utilization of biomass and residues as alternative energy sources and alternative materials with value added to its components. Her passion is the creation process of new ideas to solve traditional problems in creative and innovative manners, such as the conversion of raw materials into value product, especially if the raw materials come from alternative sources, like residues from former processes or the agribusiness. She returned to Ecuador in 2007 after completing her PhD and gathering experience in the Waste Management and Renewable Energy sector in Germany and joined immediately the Faculty at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at the University San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. In 2008, she created the Laboratory for Development of Alternative Energies at USFQ, which becomes IDEMA in 2016. Since 2015, she is the Head of the Department of Chemical Engineering at USFQ.

Abstract:

Oil, gas and coal have been used as raw materials for the production chain of most materials in our modern society. The development of petrochemical industries and processes has developed at an incredible trace. Considering that chemical
industries in general have less than 150 years of existence and petrochemistry has developed only since the beginning of the XIX century, the chemical engineering professionals can be very proud of the astonishing job done to change the world we live in. The available materials nowadays like plastics, fi bers, fuels, solvents and many others are mainly produced by the chemical industries from crude oil, carbon or gas. Its usage has been so wide, that even food or nature like products are being synthetized from fossil hydrocarbons, without forgetting the importance of the production of liquid fuels and other energy forms. This very wide range of applications has made mankind dependent of its extraction and the global economy is based on its price. Therefore, it is important that the chemical engineers apply the same concepts that have been applied for the conversion of oil into products and liquids, to the conversion of biomass and organic residues into the production of value added materials of our daily life.
                  
This can be accomplished by the development of bio-refi neries, where the biomass is converted by thermochemical or biochemical ways into new products or precursors for the manufacturing industries. Th e processes that are need to be implemented for the conversion and separation of valuable products ranges from alternative synthesis pathways, chemical or biological, to new extraction and separation methods. In this study the main technologies that are being developed for the utilization of biomass for the production of chemical precursors and products are being presented and its state of the art evaluated.

Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Valentino Tiangco has over 30 years of broad experience in engineering, program & project management, energy specialist, designer, test engineer, professor and researcher. He is currently the Biomass Program Manager at Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Energy Research & Development Department. He leads, plans, and coordinates the biomass activities that include research, development, demonstration, deployment and commercial applications of biomass for power and with co-production of value-added products. His other responsibilities include RD&D efforts in geothermal, hydro, hybrid solar and other renewable and distributed generation technologies. Prior to his job at SMUD, he was a Program Manager of Advanced Generation Program with over $100 million budget over the last ten years in service at the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Th e internal combustion (IC) engine exhaust contains harmful pollutants such as NOx, CO, and VOCs. These air pollutants need to be removed to comply with air quality control regulations. Th is project used pre-and post-combustion NOx control to reduce air pollutants in the exhaust from biogas powered IC engine. Th e pre-combustion NOx control system has a microwave hydrogen sulfi de (H2S) removal unit followed by a microwave steam reformer. Approximately 10% of the biogas used to fuel the engine is process to generate hydrogen (H2). Th e H2 is injected back into the fuel stream prior to combustion to create H2 enriched fuel gas. Hydrogen Assisted Lean Operation (HALO) is used to ignite ultra-lean air-fuel mixtures. It reduces the peak flame temperatures and signifi cantly decreases NOx emissions. Pre-combustion NOx control using HALO, followed by post-combustion NOx removal with carbon adsorption is the best approach to ensure that the CARB 2007 NOx emission standards will be consistently met. HALO, may not meet emission standards alone, but will reduce the NOx concentration in the engine exhaust signifi cantly to minimize the amount of NOx that must be removed by adsorption. Th e post-combustion NOx removal system consists of an exhaust cooler and two carbon adsorbers in series. Th ese adsorbers are fi lled with granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove NOx and VOCs from the exhaust. The beds are operated in a standard Lead-Lag cycle. When the average NOx concentration in the exhaust leaving the Lag bed reaches 5 ppm, the saturated GAC is replaced with the newly regenerated GAC. Th en that adsorber is switched to the Lag bed. Th e saturated GAC is transported to the microwave facility for processing. We expect the adsorbent will be replaced and regenerated once every 2-3 months. An additional benefi t is that the GAC also removes sulfur dioxide (SO2) and VOCs from exhaust. Under the grant awarded by California Energy Commission, CHA Corp built and fi eld tested this pre-and post-combustion NOx control system at Clean World’s Bio Digester Facility at SATS in Sacramento. A six-month long field-testing was successfully completed in January 2017. Throughout the field-testing period, the average NOx emission did not exceed 5 ppm to confi rm that pre-and post-combustion NOx control would meet not only the Rule 1110.2 but also CARB 2007 NOx control standards. Th e result from this fi eld demonstration will be presented.

Break: Lunch Break 13:10-14:00 @ Athens

Ying Liu

University of Illinois, USA

Title: Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating hydrophobic compounds for drug delivery

Time : 14:00-14:30

Speaker
Biography:

Ying Liu has obtianed her BS in Engineering Mechanics from Tsinghua University in 2001 and her PhD in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University in 2007. She is a tenured Associate Professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her research group is interested in understanding the competitive kinetics during material self assembly. She has developed a scalable, reproducible process to generate drug-delivery nanoparticles, based on comprehensive understanding of the competitive kinetics and molecular dynamics during nanoprecipitation.

Abstract:

One of the biggest advantages of polymeric nanoparticles is the increase in solubility of hydrophobic compounds that they facilitate. Nearly 40% of all pharmaceutical compounds on the market (such as paclitaxel, rifampicin, digoxin and estrone) and 90% of newly developed compounds are hydrophobic and therefore diffi cult to deliver and maintain at suffi cient bioavailability. Drugs requires toxic solvents and surfactants such as Cremophor and Tween, which oft en impair drug distribution and are associated with severe side eff ects. Nanomedicines, which do not require the use of toxic solvents, off er clear advantages. However, in over more than two decades, very few nanomedicines have been successfully developed and approved for clinical use. Th ose already on the market are either liposome based (such as Doxil® and Myocet®) or a protein-drug complex (such as Abraxane®). Although biodegradable and biocompatible polymers have signifi cant advantages over liposome and protein delivery vehicles, such as better stability and robust molecular structure, polymeric nanoparticles have not been used beyond animal tests.
 
                     
 
The major diffi culty is to completely control the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles especially producing them in a large quantity. Th e Liu research group has developed a process of manipulating non-equilibrium structures of the polymeric nanoparticles via kinetic control by a sophisticated combination of mixing and spray drying. The Liu research group combined experimental and simulation tools to elucidate the selfassembly kinetics of polymeric micelles that control pharmaceutical nanoparticle physicochemical properties at multiple time scale
form 100 ns to 10 s.

Speaker
Biography:

Eri Yoshida is an Associate Professor of Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan. She has received her PhD in Polymer Engineering from Tokyo Institute of Technology and Bachelor’s degree in Education from Tokyo Gakugei University. She has worked at Kyoto Institute of Technology as an Assistant Professor. She was also a Visiting Scientist at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has more than 100 peer reviewed scientifi c publications and obtained over 20 patents. She is a Member of the Editorial Board of several international peer reviewed journals. Her research interests include molecular self-assembly of polymer amphiphilies, controlled/living radical polymerization, molecular design of functional polymers and polymer syntheses using supercritical carbon dioxide.

Abstract:

Microsized giant vesicles comprised of an amphiphilic poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate-randommethacrylic acid) diblock copolymer, PMA-b-P(MMA-r-MA), are possible artifi cial models of biomembrane for cells and organelles based on the similarities in their size and structure. Th e similarities include morphological variation based on critical packing shape of the diblock copolymer, membrane fusion and fission and stimulus-responsiveness. Th is paper describes the morphological changes in the vesicles by incorporation of ionic segments into the hydrophilic PMA block and the transformation by electrostatic interaction with a polyelectrolyte on the hydrophilic surface of the vesicles. Th e permeability enhancement of the vesicle bilayer by incorporation of the ionic segments into the hydrophobic P(MMA-r-MA) block is also described. Th e morphological changes in the spherical vesicles were investigated by incorporation of the 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SpMA) into the hydrophilic PMA block. Th e vesicles were reduced in size as the SpMA units increased due to the expansion of the hydrophilic surface area for critical packing shape of the copolymer by the incorporation of the more hydrophilic ionic segments. Th e increase in the SpMA units delayed the transition from the spherical vesicles to a sheet-like bilayer. Th e SpMA-containing vesicles were disrupted into a nonspecifi c form by the electrostatic interaction with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). A large excess of the polyelectrolyte caused partial fusion of the vesicles rather than disruption (Figure-1).
 
            
 
The vesicles with the SpMA incorporated into the hydrophobic P(MMA-r-MA) block also changed from spherical to sheet-like as the SpMA units increased. Th e SpMA units enhanced the permeability of Rhodamine B (Rh) into the vesicle bilayer, whereas the vesicles without SpMA captured no Rh molecules. It was demonstrated that this permeability enhancement was attributed to the pore formation in the bilayer by the capture and release of the Rh by the SpMA units in the hydrophobic phases.

Speaker
Biography:

Rakesh Govind is currently a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cincinnati and President of PRD Tech, Inc., a small business company. He has published over 130 peer-reviewed papers in national and international journals and has given invited presentations at major national and international conference.

 

Abstract:

Problem Statement: The objective of this work was to develop a systematic strategy for generating efficient, alternate reaction paths that could be used to manufacture the top 100 industrial chemicals, currently produced from crude oil, using renewable feed-stocks. All organic chemicals play a vital role in synthesis of polymers, solvents, food products and fi bers, manufacturing these chemicals from oil, coal or natural gas results in increasing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, responsible for global climate change.
Aim: The aim of this study was to use the existing knowledge on the conversion of carbon-neutral feed-stocks, like biomass, wood, etc., to suitable precursor raw materials and the known industrial reaction paths, currently used for manufacturing the top 100 industrial organic chemicals, to systematically develop and evaluate alternate carbon-effi cient reaction paths.
Methodology: A matrix model is generated that consists of 96 biomass sources and 105 major industrial chemicals, in which each element shows either the amount of chemical (represented by the matrix column) that is produced from a unit amount of biomass or the amount of carbon that is present in the chemical, represented by the matrix column, divided by the amount of carbon in the
chemical, represented by the row of the matrix, i.e., fractional carbon economy for the conversion of the chemical in the row to the chemical, represented by the column. The fractional carbon economy was determined from a comprehensive listing of industrial reactions paths, which also gives the yields and effi ciencies of these industrial reaction paths, currently being practiced in the chemical industry.
 
 
Result: Conclusion & Significance: This methodology allows a systematic generation of viable reaction paths for manufacturing industrial chemicals from renewable, carbon-neutral feed-stocks. An example of a chemical pathway generated by this methodology is shown in Figure 1.

Sabine Enders

Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Germany

Title: Polymer thermodynamics for pharmaceutical applications

Time : 15:30-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Sabine Enders leads the Institute of Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration Technology at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany. Her scientific
expertise lies in the fi eld of phase behaviors and interfacial properties of complex mixtures, such as mixtures containing polymers, crude oil, pharmaceuticals or
surfactants.

Abstract:

Polymeric carries, which physically entrap molecules of interest (pharmaceutical active ingredient, API) and polymer conjugates, to which such molecules are chemically bound, play an important role in modern pharmaceutical technology. Macromolecular architecture is receiving increasing interest as the search for new tailor-made polymeric materials with strictly specifi ed properties intensifiers. Th erefore, the molecular architecture must be taken into account in the thermodynamic framework. Th e lattice cluster theory (LCT), developed by Dudowicz and Freed, allows the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of a molecule having an arbitrary structure and hence it is possible to take the short-chain branching of the polymer directly into account. Th e LCT will be utilized to model phase equilibria of polymer containing mixtures. Polymers involved in this research are polyolefi ns and hyperbranched polymers. In the case of polyolefi ns, which are semi-crystalline polymers, the chemical composition, the molecular weight distribution, stereoregularity and short-chain branching distributions (SCBD) play the dominant role for the material properties. All these properties show an impact of the related phase equilibria (solid-liquid equilibria, liquid-liquid demixing at high pressure).                                                                                     
This contribution demonstrated the possibilities as well as the limitation of the LCT and their modifi cations for phase equilibria predictions. Hyperbranched polymers carry a large number of polar terminal groups and therefore they are widely applied for increasing the solubility in water and consequently the bioavailability of hydrophobic API. In this contribution the increase of the solubility of the model API quercetin, which has very poor water solubility, by adding a hyperbranched polymer will be discussed. Alcohols are excellent solvents for quercetin, however, quercetin degraded in this solvent. Additionally, the prediction of the relevant liquid-liquid equilibria using the LCT is discussed in detail. One example is the ternary system composed of hyperbranched polymer+water+butanol (Figure-1).
                                                                               

Break: Networking & Refreshment Break 16:00-16:20 @ Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Kirsten Grubel has studied Chemistry at Ruhr-University Bochum in Germany. For her interdisciplinary Master thesis, she changed from the research field of
Inorganic Chemistry to the Departments of Technical Chemistry and Mechanical Engineering. In her Master thesis, she investigated and developed methods to analyze the solubility properties of light gases in volatile solvents and joined PhD project in 2015, dealing with investigation of thermophysical properties of fluids under high pressure.

Abstract:

For commercial production of basic and fine chemicals, like aldehydes, ketones and dioles, alcohol oxidations are commonly used. Th ese processes suff er from the use of toxic oxidizing agents and the production of a vast amount of toxic by-products. In this regard, an important fi eld in chemical research is catalyst development in order to substitute commercial toxic substrates and to reduce environmental pollution. The heterogeneously catalyzed aerobic ethanol oxidation features the utilization of oxygen from air as oxidizing agent. This approach is not only cost and atom effi cient, it also bears the benefit of a greener industrial process since oxygen is non-toxic, readily available and water is the only by-product. Unfortunately, little is known about the solubility properties of the air components N2 and O2 in aqueous ethanol solutions at process conditions. This lack of data impedes to find optimal reaction conditions and to develop optimal catalyst with desired requirements. Within this project, solubility properties of the air components in dependence of temperature, pressure and liquid phase compositions are measured.
                                         
The setup for the gas solubility measurements mainly consists of a high pressure autoclave connected to a gas chromatograph. To investigate the solubility properties of a gas, the autoclave is filled with thoroughly degassed ethanol/water mixtures, heated to the desired temperature, pressurized with the gas to be analyzed and the mixture is stirred to accelerate equilibration times. At equilibrium conditions, samples from the liquid phase are withdrawn via the capillary of the sampling valve and preceded to the gas chromatograph via the superheated, helium purged transfer line, in order to evaporate the liquid sample content. By means of the at-line chromatograph, the molar amount of dissolved gases in the solvent (ethanol water mixtures) can be quantitatively determined. These data will help to optimize reaction conditions and to evaluate catalyst requirements for optimal efficiency and selectivity.

Break: Panel Discussions 16:40-16:50 @ Zurich
Poster Presentations 16:50-17-10.
Day 2 Program Closed By 17-10.