Day 2 :
NC State University, USA
Keynote: Controlling the Morphological and Property Development in Network-Forming Multiblock Ionomers
Time : 10:00-10:40
Richard J Spontak, Alumni Distinguished Professor and prior NTNU Lars Onsager Professor, received his BS and PhD degrees from Penn State (1983) and Cal Berkeley (1988), respectively. He performed his Post-doctoral research at Cambridge University (UK) before joining Procter & Gamble. In 1992, he moved to NC State, where he supervises the Macromolecular Materials and Morphology Group. He has published over 240 peer-reviewed journal articles, and has been elected a fellow of APS, IOM3 and RSC, as well as a member of the Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences. He has won several international awards for his research regarding Nanostructured Polymers.
Block copolymers continue to capture the attention of the academic and industrial world due to their ability to self-assemble into a wide variety of "soft" nanostructures that are ideally suited for a broad range of diverse nanotechnologies. Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), such as triblock copolymers with glassy endblocks and a rubbery midblock, also possess elastic networks, and selective solvation of the rubbery midblock results in thermoplastic elastomer gels (TPEGs) with remarkable mechanical properties for dielectric elastomers, shape-memory systems, and flextronics. While most block copolymers are inherently nonpolar, functionalization of block copolymers can permit these materials to be used in polar environments. Sulfonation of block copolymers, for example, yields materials that possess amphiphilic properties. Combination of TPEs possessing a sulfonated midblock with a polar midblock-selective solvent produces a unique TPEG capable of forming a physical hydrogel. These materials are competitive candidates for electroactive media and photovoltaic devices. Unfortunately, the inherently high incompatibilities and glass transition temperatures of block ionomers prevent the use of thermal annealing, routinely employed to refine the morphologies of nonionic block copolymers. This presentation explores the morphological characteristics of midblock-sulfonated pentablock ionomers cast from solvents differing in polarity, followed by solvent-vapor annealing (SVA). Transmission electron microscopy confirms that films deposited from different solvent systems form non-equilibrium morphologies due to solvent-template, self-assembly and drying. A series of SVA tests performed with solvents varying in polarity reveals that exposing cast films to the vapor of a polar solvent constitutes the most effective SVA protocol, yielding the anticipated equilibrium morphology.
Queen’s University Belfast, UK
Time : 11:00-11:40
Haresh Manyar is a Lecturer in Chemical Engineering at Queen’s University Belfast, UK. His research focuses on the design of heterogeneous catalysts, process intensification and kinetic modeling. He has published 4 patents and 31 papers in peer-reviewed international journals with an h-index of 13 and >545 citations. He has been appointed to the Leadership forum of the IChemE Energy Centre Board. He has chaired the Green Chemistry session at 67th CHEMCON 2014, Chandigarh, India.
Sustainable production of biomass derived renewable fuels and chemicals are a key future technology for constraining global warming and replacing fossil resources. However, for sustainable and economically viable bio-refinery we need higher process efficiencies, better catalysts and new chemical processes. In our research group, we have keen interest in process intensification using catalysis based on rational design criteria for developing high-performance catalysts using density functional theory calculations and in-situ operando spectroscopy techniques. Herein, we presented process intensification of selective hydrogenation of plant oils, fatty acids and amides for production of renewable hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols and amines. In comparison with many carbonyl hydrogenations, the hydrogenation of amides/carboxylic acids is most difficult due to weak polarizability and lower reactivity of carbonyl group. Hence current manufacturing processes are expensive and hazardous requiring high pressures and temperatures (200-400 bar hydrogen, 200-400oC). Herein, we reported selective hydrogenation of amides and carboxylic acids under remarkably low reaction temperatures and pressures (5-20 bar hydrogen, 60-130oC) using Pt/TiO2 and Pt-Re/TiO2 catalysts. The catalyst and reaction conditions were tuned to obtain either alkanes or alcohols with high selectivity. Theoretical gas phase DFT simulation studies over a Pt-Re surface were performed to predict the enhanced hydrogenation activity through synergistic interaction of Pt and Re and compared with the experimental results from the hydrogenation of different amides/carboxylic acids. A two-site Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) kinetic model was developed to describe the reaction kinetics. To further ease the technology transfer, a continuous flow process was also developed.